• Index

关于作者

asyncio

Reads: 127564

asyncio是Python 3.4版本引入的标准库,直接内置了对异步IO的支持。

asyncio的编程模型就是一个消息循环。我们从asyncio模块中直接获取一个EventLoop的引用,然后把需要执行的协程扔到EventLoop中执行,就实现了异步IO。

asyncio实现Hello world代码如下:

import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def hello():
    print("Hello world!")
    # 异步调用asyncio.sleep(1):
    r = yield from asyncio.sleep(1)
    print("Hello again!")

# 获取EventLoop:
loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
# 执行coroutine
loop.run_until_complete(hello())
loop.close()

@asyncio.coroutine把一个generator标记为coroutine类型,然后,我们就把这个coroutine扔到EventLoop中执行。

hello()会首先打印出Hello world!,然后,yield from语法可以让我们方便地调用另一个generator。由于asyncio.sleep()也是一个coroutine,所以线程不会等待asyncio.sleep(),而是直接中断并执行下一个消息循环。当asyncio.sleep()返回时,线程就可以从yield from拿到返回值(此处是None),然后接着执行下一行语句。

asyncio.sleep(1)看成是一个耗时1秒的IO操作,在此期间,主线程并未等待,而是去执行EventLoop中其他可以执行的coroutine了,因此可以实现并发执行。

我们用Task封装两个coroutine试试:

import threading
import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def hello():
    print('Hello world! (%s)' % threading.currentThread())
    yield from asyncio.sleep(1)
    print('Hello again! (%s)' % threading.currentThread())

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
tasks = [hello(), hello()]
loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.wait(tasks))
loop.close()

观察执行过程:

Hello world! (<_MainThread(MainThread, started 140735195337472)>)
Hello world! (<_MainThread(MainThread, started 140735195337472)>)
(暂停约1秒)
Hello again! (<_MainThread(MainThread, started 140735195337472)>)
Hello again! (<_MainThread(MainThread, started 140735195337472)>)

由打印的当前线程名称可以看出,两个coroutine是由同一个线程并发执行的。

如果把asyncio.sleep()换成真正的IO操作,则多个coroutine就可以由一个线程并发执行。

我们用asyncio的异步网络连接来获取sina、sohu和163的网站首页:

import asyncio

@asyncio.coroutine
def wget(host):
    print('wget %s...' % host)
    connect = asyncio.open_connection(host, 80)
    reader, writer = yield from connect
    header = 'GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: %s\r\n\r\n' % host
    writer.write(header.encode('utf-8'))
    yield from writer.drain()
    while True:
        line = yield from reader.readline()
        if line == b'\r\n':
            break
        print('%s header > %s' % (host, line.decode('utf-8').rstrip()))
    # Ignore the body, close the socket
    writer.close()

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
tasks = [wget(host) for host in ['www.sina.com.cn', 'www.sohu.com', 'www.163.com']]
loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.wait(tasks))
loop.close()

执行结果如下:

wget www.sohu.com...
wget www.sina.com.cn...
wget www.163.com...
(等待一段时间)
(打印出sohu的header)
www.sohu.com header > HTTP/1.1 200 OK
www.sohu.com header > Content-Type: text/html
...
(打印出sina的header)
www.sina.com.cn header > HTTP/1.1 200 OK
www.sina.com.cn header > Date: Wed, 20 May 2015 04:56:33 GMT
...
(打印出163的header)
www.163.com header > HTTP/1.0 302 Moved Temporarily
www.163.com header > Server: Cdn Cache Server V2.0
...

可见3个连接由一个线程通过coroutine并发完成。

小结

asyncio提供了完善的异步IO支持;

异步操作需要在coroutine中通过yield from完成;

多个coroutine可以封装成一组Task然后并发执行。

参考源码

async_hello.py

async_wget.py



Comments

Make a comment

  • Index

WARNING: You are using an old browser that does not support HTML5. Please choose a modern browser (Chrome / Microsoft Edge / Firefox / Sarafi) to get a good experience.